Skin Cancer

Melanoma



Melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, these cancerous growth begins in melanocytes, a specialized cells in the skin that produce the brown pigment known as melanin. When unrepaired DNA damaged to skin cells most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine, tanning bed and it triggers mutations a(genetic defects) that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly also form malignant tumors.
These tumors begin in the pigments producing melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanomas often resemble moles, some develops from moles, majority of melanomas are black or brown, but they can be skin colored, pink, red, purple, blue or white.

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Melanoma is the most dangerous the third most common cancer among women ages 20-39 and the second most common cancer in men ages 20-39.

In the US, melanoma is currently the fifth most common cancer in men and the sixth most common in women of all age groups.

In 2017, it is estimated that there will be 87,110 new cases of melanoma in the United States and 9,730 deaths from the disease.2
  • 52,170 cases of invasive melanoma will occur in males.
  • 34,940 cases of invasive melanoma will occur in females.

Signs and Symptoms:

1)The first sign can appear in one or more typical moles, in your face, legs or skin surface.
2) Take note of any new growths that begin to grow in form of
a) Itching
b) Bleeding
3) A mole that is painful and has changes shape, color or size.

When examining your atypical moles, remember the rule of “ABCDE”:
  • Asymmetry: Is each side of the mole shaped differently?
  • Border: Are the mole’s edges ragged or blurred?
  • Color: Is the mole uneven shades of brown, black, tan, red, white or blue?
  • Diameter: Is the mole larger than the tip of a pencil eraser?
  • Enlargement: Has the mole increased in size?
  • Evolution: Does the mole look different than the other moles around it or is it changing size, shape or color?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEZYXcrvvAA

Causes Of Melanoma

1) Skin type.
2) Ultraviolet rays.
3) Tanning Beds .
4) personal history (genetic)

ways to help reduce your risk of melanoma:

  • Wear sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher.
  • Cover your whole body.
  • Choose sunscreen labeled “broad spectrum,”
  • Avoid tanning salons,
  • Wear wrap-around sunglasses that provide 100% UV protection to safeguard your eyes.
  • Seek shade or avoid the sun during the peak hours of 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
  • Use extra caution near water, snow and sand, .
  • Wear a hat with a wide brim
  • Wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothing such as long-sleeve shirts or long pants that protect a larger area of your skin.

Treatments:

1) The standard method of doing this is by surgery resection (cutting it out).
Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, medications, or in some cases chemotherapy.


external image Stages-of-melanoma.jpg

*The prognosis for melanoma depends upon the thickness of the melanoma, depth of penetration and ulceration**

How to Prevent:

  • Avoid the sun during the middle of the day. ...
  • Wear sunscreen year-round. ...
  • Wear protective clothing. ...
  • Avoid tanning lamps and beds. ...
  • Become familiar with your skin so that you'll notice changes.









https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5rYpMaUOd_A

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fn-oGOB-jZA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDwigwLwd5A
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQLphecl-1A
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EIlZ7yUdqYY

Squamous and basal Cell Carcinoma


What is it?

  • Squamous cells: These are flat cells in the outer part of the epidermis that are constantly shed as new ones form.
  • Basal cells: These cells are in the lower part of the epidermis, called the basal cell layer. These cells constantly divide to form new cells to replace the squamous cells that wear off the skin’s surface. As these cells move up in the epidermis, they get flatter, eventually becoming squamous cells.



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Squamous Cell Carcinoma -



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Basal Cell Carcinoma -


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Squamous Cell

Prognosis

  • The overall mortality rate of cutaneous SCC metastasis is low (<5%), but where distant metastases are present, the five-year survival rate is poor at around 25-40%.
  • Up to 95% of metastases and local recurrences are detected within five years of initial treatment, with 70-90% occurring within the first two years.

Prevention

  • Avoiding sun exposure is the key to prevention, including:
    • Staying indoors or in the shade as much as possible between 11 am and 3 pm.
    • Covering up with clothes and a wide brimmed hat when out in the sunshine.
    • Applying sunscreen of at least sun protection factor (SPF) 15 (SPF 30 for children or people with pale skin) which also has high ultraviolet A (UVA) protection
Treatment
Surgery
Excision
Curettage and electrodessication
Mohs surgery
Radiation Therapy

Cryotherapy

Treating advanced squamous cell cancers

Lymph node dissection:
Systemic chemotherapy:


Basal Cell
Approximately 85% of BCCs occur on the face, head (scalp included), and neck; others appear on the trunk or extremities; rarely, they may occur on the hands.
Other characteristic features of BCC tumors include the following:
  • Waxy papules with central depression
  • Erosion or ulceration: Often central and pigmented
  • Bleeding: Especially when traumatized
  • Oozing or crusted areas: In large BCCs
  • Translucency
  • Telangiectases over the surface
  • Slow growing: 0.5 cm in 1-2 years
  • Black-blue or brown areas
Periocular tumors most commonly involve the following:
Lower eyelid: 48.9-72.1%
Medial canthus: 25-30%
Upper eyelid: 15%
Lateral canthus: 5%
Treatment
Surgery
  • Electrodesiccation and curettage
  • Excisional surgery
  • Mohs micrographically controlled surgery
  • Cryosurgery
Radiation therapy

radiation therapy (RT)
Postoperative radiation
Photodynamic therapy
  • Tumor recurrence with tissue atrophy and scar formation
  • Elderly patients or patients with medical conditions preventing extensive oculoplastic reconstructive surgery
  • Tumor with poorly defined borders based on clinical examination
  • Tumor requiring difficult or extensive oculoplastic surgery
Pharmacologic therapy
  • Topical 5-fluorouracil 5%: May be used to treat small, superficial BCCs in low-risk areas
  • Imiquimod: Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of nonfacial superficial BCC
  • Tazarotene: Can also be used to treat small, low-risk BCCs

Oral agents approved by the FDA for advanced forms of BCC include the following Hedgehog pathway inhibitors:
Vismodegib (Erivedge)
  • Sonidegib (Odomzo)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwVoo2Tl-3U[


breast cancer 2.jpeg



Inflammatory Breast Cancer

By: Karina Lopez

  • What is Cancer IBC?
    • o It is rare and a very aggressive disease
    • o It happens when cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin of the breast
    • o One reason why it is called inflammatory is because the breast gets redness and gets inflamed
    • o 1 out of 5 people
    • o progresses rapidly and happens within a few weeks or months
    • o usually happens to younger females in African Americans than white women
    • o IBC is more common with obese women than normal weight women
    • o It can still occur within men but usually at an older age than women
    • o Doesn’t show up in a mammogram or in a big chump in the breast making it difficult to find

  • What are the symptoms of IBC?
    • The skin around the breast becomes red/pinkish
    • o Rapid increase in the breast
    • o Breast could have rigid appearance
    • o Nipple is inverted
    • o Tenderness, burning, and heaviness

[[image:blob:http://ped203health2.wikispaces.com/f665f9d3-449a-462f-8ae0-dc84d77e3821 width="165" height="162" align="right" caption="Breast may become red, swollen, and warm"]]
  • How can I check to see if I have IBC?
[[image:blob:http://ped203health2.wikispaces.com/870bf1f6-b6e4-41f2-ab06-5fe43f3c0069 width="170" height="168" align="right"]]
    • o Get a mammogram
    • o Breast ultrasound
    • o MRI
    • o PET scan
    • o CT scan

  • How is IBC treated?
    • o First is treated with chemotherapy to help shrink the tumor this is called multimodal approach
    • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy: This type of chemotherapy is given before surgery and usually includes both anthracycline and taxane drugs. Doctors generally recommend that at least six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy be given over the course of 4 to 6 months before the tumor is removed, unless the disease continues to progress during this time and doctors decide that surgery should not be delayed.
    • Targeted therapy: Inflammatory breast cancers often produce greater than normal amounts of the HER2 protein, which means that drugs such as trastuzumab (Herceptin) that target this protein may be used to treat them. Anti-HER2 therapy can be given both as part of neoadjuvant therapy and after surgery (adjuvant therapy).
    • Hormone therapy: If the cells of a woman’s inflammatory breast cancer contain hormone receptors, hormone therapy is another treatment option. Drugs such as tamoxifen, which prevent estrogen from binding to its receptor, and aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole, which block the body’s ability to make estrogen, can cause estrogen-dependent cancer cells to stop growing and die.
    • Surgery: The standard surgery for inflammatory breast cancer is a modified radical mastectomy. This surgery involves removal of the entire affected breast and most or all of the lymph nodes under the adjacent arm. Often, the lining over the underlying chest muscles is also removed, but the chest muscles are preserved. Sometimes, however, the smaller chest muscle (pectoralis minor) may be removed, too.Radiation therapy: Post-mastectomy radiation therapy to the chest wall under the breast that was removed is a standard part of multimodal therapy for inflammatory breast cancer. If a woman received trastuzumab before surgery, she may continue to receive it during postoperative radiation therapy. Breast reconstruction can be performed in women with inflammatory breast cancer, but, due to the importance of radiation therapy in treating this disease, experts generally recommend delayed reconstruction.
    • Adjuvant therapy: Adjuvant systemic therapy may be given after surgery to reduce the chance of cancer recurrence. This therapy may include additional chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy (such as trastuzumab), or some combination of these treatments.

  • Videos
o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAo3aBf33s4
ibc-symptoms.jpg


Inflammatory breast cancer doesn't commonly form a lump, as occurs with other forms of breast cancer.

Diagnosing inflammatory breast cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose inflammatory breast cancer include:
  • A physical exam. Your doctor examines your breast to look for redness and other signs of inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Imaging tests. Your doctor may recommend a breast X-ray (mammogram) or a breast ultrasound to look for signs of cancer in your breast, such as thickened skin. Additional imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging, may be recommended in certain situations.
  • Removing a sample of tissue for testing. A biopsy is a procedure to remove a small sample of suspicious breast tissue for testing. The tissue is analyzed in a laboratory to look for signs of cancer. A skin biopsy may also be helpful, and this can be done at the same time as a breast biopsy.

Staging inflammatory breast cancer

If you have inflammatory breast cancer, your doctor will work to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. This process is called staging.
Additional tests that may be used to stage your cancer include a computerized tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) scan and bone scan. Not every woman needs every test, so your doctor will select the most appropriate tests based on your particular situation.
The stages of inflammatory breast cancer are:
  • Stage III. At this stage, cancer is considered to be locally advanced cancer — meaning it has spread to nearby lymph nodes and to the fibrous connective tissue inside the breast.
  • Stage IV. At this stage, cancer has spread to other parts of your body.


[[image:blob:http://ped203health2.wikispaces.com/fc022b12-51d3-467c-8ea0-47704ba377b8 width="270" height="223"]]



Kyle Ficarrotta
Testicular Cancer

What is Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer is when cells located in the male genitalia divide and grow uncontrollably.


Signs and Symptoms


  • A lump or enlargement in either testicle
    • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
    • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin
    • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
    • Pain or discomfort in a testicleor the scrotum
    • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
    • Back pain
external image diagram-of-testicular-cancer.jpg

Causes:

Experts don't know what causes testicular cancer. But some problems, such as having an undescended testicle or Klinefelter syndrome, may increase a man's risk for this cancer. Most men who get testicular cancer don't have any risk factors.

.


Treatments:

Treatment depends on the:

  • Type of testicular tumor
  • Stage of the tumor

Once cancer is found, the first step is to determine the type of cancer cell by examining it under a microscope. The cells can be seminoma, nonseminoma, or both.

The next step is to determine how far the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. This is called "staging."

  • Stage I cancer has not spread beyond the testicle.
  • Stage II cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen.
  • Stage III cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes (it could be as far as the liver, lungs, or brain).

Three types of treatment can be used.

  • Surgical treatment removes the testicle (orchiectomy).
  • Radiation therapy using high-dose x-rays or other high-energy rays may be used after surgery to prevent the tumor from returning. Radiation therapy is usually only used for treating seminomas.
  • Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. This treatment has greatly improved survival for people with both seminomas and nonseminomas.



How to check:

A physical examination typically reveals a firm lump (mass) in one of the testicles. When the health care provider holds a flashlight up to the scrotum, the light does not pass through the lump. This exam is called transillumination.

Other tests include:



Image result for testicular cancer pictures
Image result for testicular cancer pictures




Videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFeDjwU1wSc -Educational














Works Cited:

Gersten, Todd. "Testicular Cancer." MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S National Library of Medicine,
11 July 2016. Web. 09 July 2017

















































Cancer


SAVE VIDEO
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtmJd9DNVOU

Instructions

Your group needs to cover the following types of cancer.

Melanoma
Squamous and basal cell carcinoma
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Testicular Cancer
As a group you are responsible for creating your own Wiki covering the topics assigned. You may attach files, articles,
videos, pictures and/or word documents.

Be prepared to give your reports orally to the class using your Wiki.

Included in your report should be a description of the disease, who it affects, treatment and prognosis.

How to use the wiki page
  1. To enter content on this page, click the EDITtab located on the top, right side of the page.
  2. Enter the information and click Save to save changes.

You can upload files or create links to external website or to a page in the wiki.

  1. To upload a file or an image, click the Fileicon on the tool bar, upload the file.
  2. Click the Link icon to enter a link to a url or link to a page in the wiki.

www.**everydayhealth.com**
www.ibcresearch.org
www.healthyweb.com
www.mayoclinic.org